Clinical Nursing Research – research designed to generate evidence to guide nursing practice and to improve the care and quality of life of clients/patients. (Polit, D. (2006) Essentials of nursing research : methods, appraisal, and utilization. Philadelphia : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, p.4)
Empirical research/evidence- research which is based on observed and measured phenomena and it is research that derives knowledge from actual experience rather than from theory or belief. (http://library.msstate.edu/li/tutorial/empirical).
Qualitative/Naturalistic Research– research dealing with phenomena that are difficult or impossible to quantify mathematically, such as beliefs, meanings, attributes, and symbols. Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.
Quantitative/Scientific Research – research involving formal, objective information about the world, with mathematical quantification; it can be used to describe test relationships and to examine cause and effect relationships. Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc.